Nauki Humanistyczne i Społeczne

Kultura i Społeczeństwo

Zawartość

Kultura i Społeczeństwo | 2020 | No 1 |

Abstrakt

This article concerns “living zones of the imagination”—areas of social life in which intensive “interpretive labor” is underway. Thanks to these zones, it is possible to engage in universally accepted exercises that enable a person to “see the world through the eyes of another person” and that yet do not disturb the current socio-cultural order. They provide an important basis for understanding among people, for harmonizing meanings in the sphere of social realities, and for integration that goes beyond certain permanent boundaries and hierarchies. The basic aim of the article is to prove that hospitality, understood as a value in Polish culture, could contribute to a considerable degree to the creation of such zones. The author analyzes the zones’ character, function, and meaning, paying attention to how they resist the expansion of bureaucratic ways of organizing social life. He also draws attention to the influence that an axio-normative pattern could have within specific models of behavior and cultural practices. Key words: hospitality, resistance practices, social imagination, interpretive labor
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Adam Pisarek
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach

Abstrakt

This article looks at hospitality practices in the process of recreating and modifying social structure. The author seeks the general regularities and behavioral patterns that appear when people visit others and are visited, as well as how they speak of these visits, or, in Pierre Bourdieu’s language, the principles that organize practices that are part of the class habitus. For the purposes of the analysis, two comparative groups were selected: people with the highest and lowest levels of economic, social, and cultural capital. The analysis allowed several conclusions to be drawn. First, in addition to the class factor, the age or generational factor should be taken into account as it has proven to be relevant in terms of the diversity of practices. Second, the research showed that several of the practices studied were not differentiated between the groups; they turned out to be intense in the case of people with high and low levels of capital. Such patterns involved informality and freedom, the striving for agreement and group solidarity, and an aversion to aesthetics and decoration. Third, there were sometimes differentiating nuances—the general principle could be the same, but the justification or motivation behind it was different. For people with a high level of both types of capital, naturalness/honesty was an important justification and was contrasted to falsehood, artificiality, and pretentiousness. This justification seemed to be a meta-principle that permeated many other patterns of behavior.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marta Skowrońska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza

Abstrakt

In order to describe the features of Polish hospitality, autobiographical records containing memories of hospitality from various historical periods were compiled. The research material included about 300 episodes from 30 published sources. A targeted selection was made according to a combination of three criteria: a di versity of social positions among the authors, the biographies of the authors, and the detail of description. An analysis of the material was conducted in order to contribute to a better understanding of the social significance of hospitality. The oretical assumptions about hospitality in conditions of stability and social crisis were advanced. The analysis showed that in times of relative stability, hospital ity was biographically important when it allowed a person to transition between positions in the social structure (usually between close levels) and involved some form of promotion. On the other hand, in conditions of intensified change and crises, the order was disturbed: on the one hand, visits to the homes of persons occupying more distant positions in the hierarchy (both up and down the social ladder) became more common, but on the other hand, there could be a challenge to or rejection of traditional requirements of hospitality. The first situation occurs especially at the beginning of a crisis, and with the depletion of resources, the increase in the number of negative experiences, and socialization to a long-term threat, a survival strategy begins to take shape in which only the closest circles prevail. Such findings suggest that a more cautious look should be taken at both the theoretical concepts in which hospitality is considered a useful social invention especially in times of increased need and at the Polish self-stereotype as a nation with a culture based on hospitality, invariable generosity, and an inclination to selflessness.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Dorota Rancew-Sikora
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Gdański

Abstrakt

This text contains an analysis of the ways in which men and women engage in selected hospitality practices, including such questions as the feminine transmis sion of hospitality patterns, the division of responsibilities in preparing for guests, and places for meeting socially (at home and outside the home). On the basis of material gathered by the team of the Archive of Research on Everyday Life, the author finds numerous paradoxes and inconsistencies between women’s beliefs and their behaviors. In attempting a theoretical explanation, reference is made to the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-Claude Kaufmann, Harriet Bjerrum Nielsen, and Monica Rudberg. Analysis leads to the conclusion that the multiple and time-con suming responsibilities associated with receiving guests mostly fall to women and thus contribute to their ability to sustain symbolic power over the home space. Consequently, hospitality perpetuates the traditional division into what is public and considered “masculine” and what is private or “feminine.”
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Bogumiła Mateja-Jaworska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza

Abstrakt

The author of the text focuses on the economics of everyday life as defined by a contextual and qualitative measuring of various aspects of hospitality through the use of terms such as “more,” “less,” and “just right.” He analyzes the presence of food, alcohol, and coffee during the visit of guests. Each of these three material components of hospitality is regulated according to specific principles: “too much is better than too little” in regard to food, “too little is better than too much” for alcohol, and there has to be “at least” coffee. A detailed analysis of these principles leads to the conclusion that Polish hospitality is today oriented toward moderation. The popular belief in the abundance of Polish hospitality as a national feature is thus called into question.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ariel Modrzyk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza

Abstrakt

The subject of this article falls within the sociology of art. By analyzing selected aspects of a novel (Bolesław Prus’s The Doll) and a film (the Oscar-winning Green Book directed by Peter Farrelly), the author raises the problem of what he calls “ambiguous hospitality.” His point of departure and theoretical basis are George Ritzer’s concept of “inhospitality” and Jacques Derrida’s idea of “hostipitality.” The author treats each artistic depiction of reality as a source of situations to be read in light of elements of Erving Goffman’s reflections. He uses the ideas of symbolic interactionism, the interactive ritual, and the metaphor of the performance as tools for interpreting a film or literary situation that illustrates cultural attitudes and practices. In conclusion, he states that hosting someone could result from something other than a sincere desire to react to another human being in a friendly manner. However, this does necessarily undermine the sincerity of openness toward strangers. Realization of the maxim to “have dignity and respect others,” even if enforced by social sanction, can be a way to maintain or build relationships between those who are “one’s own” and “other,” “one’s own” and “strangers,” and finally, between a guest and host.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Paweł Ćwikła
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach

Abstrakt

This article is about immigrants’ perceptions of their host society and cultural differences. The analysis is based on twenty in-depth interviews conducted in 2018 with persons from Turkey working in Poland. Their narratives are a rich source of information about the challenges of the integration process and about the opportunities and dilemmas of ethnically and religiously diverse groups in Polish society, which is becoming increasingly multicultural. The respondents pointed to the recent noticeable deterioration in the attitude of Poles toward foreigners in general, which translates into more negative attitudes toward Turks. The cultural differences most commonly noticed related to work culture and working conditions. Although Poland’s fairly large ethnic uniformity was mostly declared to be a hindrance in the adaptation process, some immigrants saw it as strengthening social cohesion and facilitating adaptation to life in the new country. In defining the cultural differences and expectations of the host society, the foreigners became more aware of the values, practices, and attitudes with which they had become acquainted. Some interviewees did not define the differences they observed as traits of the sending or receiving society but rather “de-nationalized” the differences and referred to other categories of diversity, for example, of a class nature.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Katarzyna Andrejuk
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN

Abstrakt

The Berbers, an indigenous people of North Africa, belong to the group of “nations without a state.” For centuries, they were marginalized by the Arab majority or manipulated by European colonizers. Since the mid-twentieth century in North Africa, a movement for a Berber and Pan-Berber identity has been growing strongly. The movement has disseminated the neologism “Amazigh” as the endoethnonim of this group of peoples. The process of building (creating) a Berber identity has been slightly different in Morocco (where the stabilizing role of the monarchy has been highlighted) and in Algeria (where it has taken more violent forms). With the rise of Berber self-awareness in North Africa and the activity of the Berber diaspora in Europe (mainly in France), civil society organizations (associations) were established in Morocco and Algeria to defend the rights of the Berber minority. After many attempts and despite the resistance of Arab elites the Berber language and culture were recognized by the state authorities as equivalent to the Arabic component of the Algerian and Moroccan identity. State institutions (the Institut royal de la culture Amazighe—the IRCAM—in Morocco, and the Haut Commissariat à l’Amazighité—the HCA—in Algeria) were established for the revitalization of the Berber culture and langua
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ryszard Vorbrich
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza

Abstrakt

This article looks at hospitality practices in the process of recreating and modifying social structure. The author seeks the general regularities and behavioral patterns that appear when people visit others and are visited, as well as how they speak of these visits, or, in Pierre Bourdieu’s language, the principles that organize practices that are part of the class habitus. For the purposes of the analysis, two comparative groups were selected: people with the highest and lowest levels of economic, social, and cultural capital. The analysis allowed several conclusions to be drawn. First, in addition to the class factor, the age or generational factor should be taken into account as it has proven to be relevant in terms of the diversity of practices. Second, the research showed that several of the practices studied were not differentiated between the groups; they turned out to be intense in the case of people with high and low levels of capital. Such patterns involved informality and freedom, the striving for agreement and group solidarity, and an aversion to aesthetics and decoration. Third, there were sometimes differentiating nuances—the general principle could be the same, but the justification or motivation behind it was different. For people with a high level of both types of capital, naturalness/honesty was an important justification and was contrasted to falsehood, artificiality, and pretentiousness. This justification seemed to be a meta-principle that permeated many other patterns of behavior.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marta Skowrońska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza

Abstrakt

This article contains a partial report on ethnographic research conducted among homeless people who live in the streets outside the system of institutional aid or are staying in a hostel they created themselves. The study, carried out according to the principles of an interpretive orientation, created an opportunity to learn the views of the homeless people. It describes manifestations of engagement on behalf of the hostel in which they live and of a special type of work they undertake—interactive work on one another’s identity, which they refer to as mutual “education”—as well as involvement in the form of “doing nothing.”
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Małgorzata Kostrzyńska
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Uniwersytet Łódzki

Abstrakt

Starting from the statement that self-reflection is necessary for the development of any scientific discipline, the author of this article—a historian and sociologist—considers the characteristics of research on everyday life. What is the subject of this subdiscipline and when did such research start? What methods does it use? The author reflects on these issues, while referring to his own experience as a historian and to the book by Bogumiła Mateja-Jaworska and Marta Zawodna- -Stephan, Badania życia codziennego. Rozmowy (nie)codzienne w Polsce (2019) [Studies of Everyday Life: (Not) Everyday Conversations in Poland], in which the statements of contemporary everyday researchers are quoted. The author concludes that the beginnings of such research should be sought in the very distant past and that its material might be provided by all the creations of human culture. He also wonders if and how evidence of the modern digital age will survive.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Marcin Kula
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Akademia Teatralna im. Aleksandra Zelwerowicza w Warszawie

Instrukcja dla autorów

1. „Kultura i Społeczeństwo” zamieszcza wyłącznie materiały uprzednio nie publikowane. Zakładamy, że proponując tekst autor deklaruje tym samym, iż jest to jego oryginalna, samodzielna praca. W uzasadnionych przypadkach w przypisie powinny znaleźć się informacje o genezie tekstu (np. że jest to fragment pracy magisterskiej, doktorskiej czy opracowania grantowego) oraz o ewentualnych promotorach czy współpracownikach.
2. Wszystkie materiały są oceniane przez co najmniej dwóch recenzentów z zachowaniem zasady anonimowości (double-blind review). Dlatego prosimy o przekazywanie tekstownie podpisanych i załączanie w oddzielnej kopercie (oznaczonej tytułem artykułu) nazwiska autora, adresu, maila oraz telefonu kontaktowego. Autorów prosimy też o podanie miejsca pracy, stanowiska służbowego i tytułu naukowego oraz adresu do ewentualnej korespondencji z czytelnikami.
3. Teksty — o objętości maksimum 1,5 ark. wyd. — należy składać pod adresem redakcji w dwóch egzemplarzach, wydrukowane z podwójną interlinią(wraz z zapisem elektronicznym).
4. Tablice i wykresy należy załączać na oddzielnych stronach, a w tekście jedynie zaznaczać przeznaczone dla nich miejsca.
5. Bibliografię prosimy sporządzać (w porządku alfabetycznym) według zasad stosowanych w naszym czasopiśmie:
Nowak Stefan, 1979, System wartości społeczeństwa polskiego, „Studia Socjologiczne”, nr 4.
Szacki Jerzy (red.), 1995a, Sto lat socjologii polskiej. Od Supińskiego do Szczepańskiego, PWN, Warszawa.
Szacki Jerzy, 1995b, Wstęp: krótka historia socjologii polskiej, w: Jerzy Szacki (red.), Sto lat socjologii polskiej. Od Supińskiego do Szczepańskiego, PWN, Warszawa.
Weber Max, 2002, Gospodarka i społeczeństwo. Zarys socjologii rozumiejącej, tłum. Dorota Lachowska, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.
Odniesienie w tekście ma wówczas postać (Weber 2002, s. 113).
Prosimy o niepodawanie adresów internetowych, dzięki którym dotarto do tekstów, lecz o umieszczanie w bibliografii opisu ich wersji pierwotnych.
6. W artykułach możliwe są oczywiście także przypisy treściowe (nie bibliograficzne), zamieszczone u dołu strony. W recenzjach preferujemy przypisy bibliograficzne w dołu strony, które mają wówczas postać:
J. Szacki, Historia myśli socjologicznej, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2002, s. 113.
J. Szacki, Historia myśli socjologicznej, cyt. wyd, s. 233. Tamże, s. 255.
7. Tych, którzy kierują swoją pracę do działów „Artykuły i rozprawy” i „Z warsztatów badawczych”, prosimy o dostarczenie jej streszczenia w języku polskim — ewentualnie także angielskim — (o objętości nie przekraczającej1000 znaków, liczonych ze spacjami) oraz o wyznaczenie słów kluczowych w obu językach.

Recenzenci

RECENZENCI W 2021 ROKU

Monika Adamczyk, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski
Janusz Barański, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Piotr Binder, Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN
Tadeusz Borutka, Uniwersytet Papieski Jana Pawła II
Anita Brzozowska, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Marta Bucholc, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Michał Buchowski, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Mariusz Czubaj, Uniwersytet SWPS
Wioleta Danilewicz, Uniersytet w Białymstoku
Marcin Dębnicki, Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Rafał Drozdowski, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Danuta Duch-Krzystoszek, Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
Tomasz Ferenc, Uniwersytet Łódzki
Mirosław Filiciak, Uniwersytet SWPS
Piotr Filipkowski, Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN
Monika Frąckowiak-Sochańska, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Jacek Gądecki, Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Krakowie
Małgorzata Głowacka-Grajper, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Marek Gorzko, Akademia Pomorska w Słupsku
Małgorzata Jacyno, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Krzysztof Jasiecki, Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN
Katarzyna Kajdanek, Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Katarzyna Kalinowska, Instytut Badań Edukacyjnych
Jerzy Kałążny, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Antoni Z. Kamiński, Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN
Tomasz Kaźmierczak, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Kaja Kaźmierska, Uniwersytet Łódzki
Przemysław Kisiel, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
Jerzy Kochanowski, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Joanna Konieczna-Sałamatin, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Maciej Kowalewski, Uniwersytet Szczeciński
Wiesława Kozek, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Natalia Krzyżanowska, Örebro University
Paweł Kubicki, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Wiktoria Kudela-Świątek, Uniwersytet Pedagogoczny im. KEN w Krakowie
Waldemar Kuligowski, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Anna Kwaśniewska, Uniwersytet Gdański
Marta Leśniakowska, Instytut Sztuki PAN
Wojciech Łukowski, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Mirosława Marody, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Piotr Mitzner, Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego
Andrzej Moskwin, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Dorota Mroczkowska, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Adam Mrozowicki, Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Janusz Mucha, emeritus
Natalia Niedźwiecka-Iwańczak, Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Lech M. Nijakowski, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Przemysław Nosal, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Cezary Obracht-Prondzyński, Uniwersytet Gdański
Krzysztof Pietrowicz, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
Jakub Potulski, Uniwersytet Gdański
Ryszard Radzik, Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
Dorota Rancew-Sikora, Uniwersytet Gdański
Jerzy Rohoziński, Ośrodek Badań nad Totalitaryzmami Instytutu Pileckiego
Maja Sawicka, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Krystyna Skarżyńska, Uniwersytet SWPS
Marta Songin-Mokrzan, Uniwersytet Łódzki
Karina Stasiuk-Krajewska, Uniwersytet SWPS
Beata Szluz, Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Magdalena Ślusarczyk, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Wojciech Świątkiewicz, Uniwersytet Śląski
Piotr Toczyski, Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej
Arkadiusz Tuziak, Uniwersytet Rzeszowski
Andrzej Waśkiewicz, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Ewelina Wejbert-Wąsiewicz, Uniwersytet Łódzki
Piotr Witek, Uniwersytet im. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
Cezary Włodarczyk, Uniwersytet Jagielloński
Anna Wylegała, Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN
Katarzyna M. Wyrzykowska, Instytut Filozofii i Socjologii PAN
Tomasz Zarycki, Uniwersytet Warszawski
Anna Ziembińska-Witek, Uniwersytet im. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej
Magdalena Zowczak, Uniwersytet Warszawski

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